Environment Conventions-3 (Snippets for prelims)

http://iasinghts.in , www.iasgyaan.com  posts about International Environmental Conventions in detail for preparation. In earlier posts we published the complete list of Conventions.  Click for the list.  Please find below the conventions in detail for quick revision.

Environmental Convention

  1. Biological Weapons Convention
  • Otherwise called as Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).
  • It was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.

Purpose:

  • To prohibit the development, production, and stockpiling of biological and Toxin Weapons.
  • To supplement the 1925 General Protocol which prohibits use but not possession or development of chemical and biological weapons.

Members:

  • It was opened for signature on 10 April 1972 and entered into force 26 March 1975 when twenty-two governments had deposited their instruments of ratification.
  • Presently 180 states are party to the convention as of January 2018.

Location:

  • London, Moscow, and Washington, D.C.
  • India has signed as well as ratified the convention.
  1. Bonn Agreement
  • The Bonn Agreement is a European environmental agreement.

Aim:

  • To ensure mutual cooperation in the avoidance and combating of environmental pollution.

Why?

  • Following several oilspills in 1969, the coastal nations of the North Sea formed the Bonn Agreement.
  • The agreement was revised in 1983 to include the European Union and again in 2001 to allow Ireland to join.

Members:

  • Belgium, Denmark, the European Community, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
  1. Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians
  • Carpathian Convention is a comprehensive policy and cooperating in the protection and sustainable development of the Carpathians.
  • Aim:
  • It aims at providing conservation and restoration of unique, rare and typical natural complexes and objects of recreational and other importance situated in the heart of Europe, preventing them from negative anthropogenic influences.

Members:

  • Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia and Ukraine.

About the convention:

  • In 2001, UNEP promoted an Alpine-Carpathian Partnership.
  • In 2002, during the UN International Year of the Mountains, the Alpine-Carpathian partnership has been initiated and launched.
  • At the Fifth Ministerial Conference, the Carpathian countries adopted the Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians.
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